the seaward edge of the mangrove is dominated by pioneer species
of Avicennia and Sonneratia.
On the bank of river estuaries, Rhizophora replaces their
position. Behind this is a zone of mixed mangrove forest species
of Rhizophora, Sonneratia, Bruguiera, Ceriops, Kandelia, Xylocarpus,
Lumnitzera and Excoecaria.
But along rivers or in estuaries, groves of Nipah palms are usually
Moving towards the landward side of the mangrove forest, at the
upper limit of salt-water penetration, where soil is of firm clay,
various tree species represented here can adapt and grow within
their respective range of tolerance to the influence of salt or
brackish water. This is also the zone flooded by exceptional high
water spring tides.
Mangroves that are badly disturbed or found on narrow coasts do
not show well defined series of zones paralleling the coast. The
phenomenon of zonation is still not fully understood. Factors controlling
zonation lie in the response of tree species to salinity, tidal
influence and soil conditions. The morphology, buoyancy and mode
of establishment of propagules and its competition among the species
are other possible factors affecting zonation.
The landward mangrove fringe communities share and compete for the
same pollinators with the true mangrove communities as well as share
the same predators and parasites. In the latter instance, they perhaps
benefit the mangroves by playing as alternative hosts. Their presence
also exemplifies the adaptive and evolutionary transition of land
plants and may give valuable clues as to how mangroves were derived.
of some of the interesting trees found in Sungei Buloh Nature
Park back-mangrove community ...
laut Podocarpus polystachyus
is the only gymnosperm found in the swamp. Its long narrow
leaf blade has an interesting light green flush when juvenile.
ayam Barringtonia racemosa
has leaves obovate-lanceolate with leaf margin toothed and
flowers on pendulous spikes.
littoratis has leaves with silvery-white undersurface
and keeled, boat-shaped, brown fruits.
spathacea is an endangered species, with pinnate
leaves, very long tubular white flowers and long seed pods
containing corky, winged seeds.
Portia tree Thespesia
populnea has hibiscus-like yellow flowers which
turn purple and fruits that are water-borne.
Pong pong tree Cerbeia
odollam may remind you of a frangipani tree
with white, yellow-eyed flowers and green turning red, apple-like
Katong laut Cynometra
ramiflora has one to two pairs of leaflets
and wrinkled and knobbed fruits.
bijuga is a tall tree with spreading crown
and flat oblong seed pods.
viburnifolia is a small tree with inconspicuous
greenish white flowers and small pendant-like fruits.
Sea Hibiscus Hibiscus
tiliaceus is a somewhat untidy-looking tree
with heart-shaped leaves and bright yellow flowers that turn
maroon before falling.