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Index of flora
Index of fauna
Photo by Kang Nee
Rock and Sponge Borers
Coral rock is mostly limestone (calcium carbonate), and boring animals use a variety of means, ranging from mechanical scraping to acid secretions to drill into the solid rock.
Photo by Tan Bee Hong
Peanut Worm

Photo by Kang Nee
Barnacle (Membranobalanus)
Three of the smaller and more common boring animals are depicted.

The small fanworms are common, and normally, only the feeding tentacles are visible during hightide. Rock Peanut Worms bore their way into rock when young, leaving only a small opening for their introvert (proboscis) to extend out to feed. The larger body is permanently trapped inside the rock. Several barnacles have also adapted to life in rocks and sponges some being so specialised that they have lost their hard plates.

Photo by Kang NeeDate Mussel

Family Lithophagidae

This bivalve bores deep into coral rock by means of acid secretions. It protects itself by means of a horny shell layer (periostracum). It is especially common in dead coral blocks. It is a filter feeder. (Length up to 8cm).

Photo by Kang NeeShrimp
Upogebia ancylodactyla
Family Upogebiidae

This shrimp mechanically bores its way into the rock using its powerful pincers, creating a network of tunnels. It filters small organisms which are drawn into their tunnels by the rapid beating of their swimmerets. (Length up to 4cm).
Shore environment
From A Guide to Seashore Life by Dr Leo W H Tan and Peter K L Ng
Published by the Singapore Science Centre and sponsored by BP

@Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research and Singapore Science Centre