Flora index
Fauna index
guide to the mangroves of singapore
Vertebrates: Fish
Peter K L Ng and N Sivasothi (editors)
  Part 1 | Part 2 | Part 3 | Part 4 | Part 5

Fishes near the surface

There are many fishes near the water surface which can easily be missed unless one looks very carefully.
view of surface fishes from above Seen from above, a Spot-tail needlefish (black arrow) hovers among a group of Striped-nosed halfbeaks. The halfbeaks (white arrow) are characterised by the shiny white tips of their lower jaws.
Spot-tail needlefish
Strongylura strongylura
close-up of preserved specimen
Preserved specimen
Family Belonidae
up to 46 cm

Usually seen alone or in pairs, the green-coloured Spot-tail needlefish, is a predator of small, surface-dwelling fish. It has a slender body and a pair of long iaws with sharp teeth.

close-up of halfbeak

magnified close-up of mouth
Striped-nose halfbeaks
Zenarchopterus buffonis
Family Hemiramphidae

up to 23 cm
The similar-looking halfbeaks differ in having a considerably shorter upper jaw. When viewed from the top, the elongate lower jaw of the Striped-nosed halfbeak is tipped with white. It seems to feed largely on insects that fall onto the water.
close-up of white-spot Whitespot
Aplocheilus panchax
Family Adrianichthyidae
6 cm
The Whitespot has a distinct white spot on top of its head.

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What is mangrove?

The Ecosystem


Indirect uses
Potential uses

About Mangroves
in Singapore

Mangroves to visit
From "A Guide to Mangroves of Singapore", Peter K. L. Ng and N. Sivasothi (editors)
Volume 1: The Ecosystem and Plant Diversity and Volume 2: Animal Diversity
Authors: Kelvin K. P. Lim, Dennis H. Murphy, T. Morgany, N. Sivasothi, Peter K. L. Ng,
B. C. Soong, Hugh T. W. Tan, K. S. Tan & T. K. Tan
BP Guide to Nature Series published by the Singapore Science Centre, sponsored by British Petroleum
2001 Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, The National University of Singapore & The Singapore Science Centre