Flora index
Fauna index
guide to the mangroves of singapore
Peter K L Ng and N Sivasothi (editors)
Mangrove periwinkle
Littoraria spp.
Family Littorinidae

Relatives of the common periwinkle (Littorina) of temperate shores, there are at least 10 mangrove species known from Singapore.

Three common species are named for their respective traits: L. carinifera has a carina or prominent rib along its side; L. conica is distinctively conical in shape and L. melanostoma has a black mouth (not shown in photograph).

Most of them live on the leaves and trunks of mangrove trees, probably grazing on leaf hair and epilithic algae, although some species are common on the walls of monsoon drains.

All are well adapted to terrestrial life, spending most of their time out of water even during high tides. However, their young are released into the sea either in egg capsules or as swimming veliger larvae.

<<Back to molluscs

Littoraria carnifera
amongst barnacles on
a mangrove prop root
Shell height 2.5 cm

Littoria conica
on a mangrove tree trunk
Shell height 2.5 cm

A pair of Littoria melanostoma
on a mangrove tree trunk
Shell height of larger
specimen 2.7 cm
What is mangrove?

The Ecosystem


Indirect uses
Potential uses

About Mangroves
in Singapore

Mangroves to visit
From "A Guide to Mangroves of Singapore", Peter K. L. Ng and N. Sivasothi (editors)
Volume 1: The Ecosystem and Plant Diversity and Volume 2: Animal Diversity
Authors: Kelvin K. P. Lim, Dennis H. Murphy, T. Morgany, N. Sivasothi, Peter K. L. Ng,
B. C. Soong, Hugh T. W. Tan, K. S. Tan & T. K. Tan
BP Guide to Nature Series published by the Singapore Science Centre, sponsored by British Petroleum
2001 Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, The National University of Singapore & The Singapore Science Centre