Flora index
Fauna index
guide to the mangroves of singapore
Flowering plants
Peter K L Ng and N Sivasothi (editors)
Nyireh bunga
Xylocarpus granatum
Family Meliaceae

East Africa to Southeast Asia, Tonga. Locally at many sites. Trees 3-8 m tall; buttresses long and snaking laterally; bark light brown, yellowish or greenish, smooth, flaking off.
wide shot of whole tree
Xylocarpus granatum tree

wide shot of trees by the water
Habitat of
Xylocarpus granatum

close-up of flowering branch
Flowering branch

close-up of fruits on a branch
Fruiting branch

close-ups of dissected fruits
Fruits in various views
showing seeds within
close-up of a plank root
Plank buttresses
showing the snake-like

close-up of bark
Leaves pinnate, leaflets bright light green when young, dark green when old, narrowly drop-shaped, with rounded tips.

Flowers fragrant, with white petals, about 8 mm across; capsule woody, grapefruit- to small pomelo-sized. Mainly in mangroves, usually estuarine and often associated with Nypa and Sonneratia.
Used in boat-building, furniture wood and firewood. Bark used for tanning. Used on cloth, the bark dyes an umber colour. Root used as a remedy against cholera and dysentery in folklore. Rare. Many trees are found at the northern coast of Pulau Tekong.

This species is distinguished from X. moluccensis by its brown, yellowish or greenish, smooth and flaking bark (vs. dark grey, non-flaking fissured bark), leaflets' rounded tips (vs. pointed tips) and grapefruit- to small pomelo-sized fruit (vs. orange-sized).

See also
Nyireh batu Xylocarpus moluccensis
Plank roots as an adaptation to the mangroves.
What is mangrove?

The Ecosystem


Indirect uses
Potential uses

About Mangroves
in Singapore

Mangroves to visit
From "A Guide to Mangroves of Singapore", Peter K. L. Ng and N. Sivasothi (editors)
Volume 1: The Ecosystem and Plant Diversity and Volume 2: Animal Diversity
Authors: Kelvin K. P. Lim, Dennis H. Murphy, T. Morgany, N. Sivasothi, Peter K. L. Ng,
B. C. Soong, Hugh T. W. Tan, K. S. Tan & T. K. Tan
BP Guide to Nature Series published by the Singapore Science Centre, sponsored by British Petroleum
2001 Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, The National University of Singapore & The Singapore Science Centre