Flora index
Fauna index
guide to the mangroves of singapore
Flowering plants
Peter K L Ng and N Sivasothi (editors)
Sonneratia caseolaris
Family Sonneratiaceae

East Africa to Australia, Micronesia, New Caledonia. In Singapore, only a few trees at Woodlands Town Garden and the upper reaches of Sungei Seletar.
wide shot of whole tree
Sonneratia caseolaris

close-up of bark

close-up of flower buds
Flower buds

close-up of branch with buds
Branch with buds
close-up of red flower bud
Flower bud
Similar to S. alba but has flowers with red petals (vs. white), young branches that hang down like those of the weeping willow (Salix babylonica) or angsana (Pterocarpus indicus) (vs. somewhat erect).
The fruit is persimmon-like with sepals whose tips bend away from the stalk. Found near the banks of tidal rivers in brackish water.

When ripe, the fruits are eaten raw or cooked. Fermented fruit juice is said to be useful in arresting haemorrhage. The wall of an old fruit is given as a vermifuge. The juice of half-ripe fruit is used to treat coughs. The juice of the flowers enters into a compound for treating blood in the urine. Pneumatophores were used as corks and floats.

For a comparison of the fruit forms of the different Sonneratia species.
See also ultrafiltration of salt and pneumatophores as adaptations to the mangroves.
What is mangrove?

The Ecosystem


Indirect uses
Potential uses

About Mangroves
in Singapore

Mangroves to visit
From "A Guide to Mangroves of Singapore", Peter K. L. Ng and N. Sivasothi (editors)
Volume 1: The Ecosystem and Plant Diversity and Volume 2: Animal Diversity
Authors: Kelvin K. P. Lim, Dennis H. Murphy, T. Morgany, N. Sivasothi, Peter K. L. Ng,
B. C. Soong, Hugh T. W. Tan, K. S. Tan & T. K. Tan
BP Guide to Nature Series published by the Singapore Science Centre, sponsored by British Petroleum
2001 Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, The National University of Singapore & The Singapore Science Centre