Flora index
Fauna index
guide to the mangroves of singapore
Flowering plants
Peter K L Ng and N Sivasothi (editors)
Bakau kurap
Rhizophora mucronata
Family Rhizophoraceae

East Africa to Australia, Melanesia, Micronesia. Locally at various sites. Tree up to 15 m tall, rarely over 3 m.
wide shot of stilt roots
Stilt roots of
Rhizophora mucronata

close-up of flower and buds
Flowers and buds
close-up of seedlings on a branch
Fruiting branch
Leaves opposite, blades oblong, tiny black-spotted below, leaf stalks and stipules often yellowish; stalked flowers, 2-14 per inflorescence on a long, slender, yellow stalk; seedling viviparous, hypocotyl about 60 cm long or more, warty, with pointed tip.

In similar localities as R. apiculata but more tolerant of sandy and firmer bottoms.
The timber is used for fuel and charcoal-making. The bark is rich in tannin, used for tanning and dyeing and occasionally medicinally in cases of haematuria. Rare. Differs from R. apiculata in possessing long, slender, yellow inflorescence stalks (vs. short, stout, dark grey) and from R. stylosa in the 0.5-1.5 mm long style in the flower (vs. 4-6 mm long).

See also ultrafiltration of salt, vivipary and stilt roots as adaptations to the mangroves.
What is mangrove?

The Ecosystem


Indirect uses
Potential uses

About Mangroves
in Singapore

Mangroves to visit
From "A Guide to Mangroves of Singapore", Peter K. L. Ng and N. Sivasothi (editors)
Volume 1: The Ecosystem and Plant Diversity and Volume 2: Animal Diversity
Authors: Kelvin K. P. Lim, Dennis H. Murphy, T. Morgany, N. Sivasothi, Peter K. L. Ng,
B. C. Soong, Hugh T. W. Tan, K. S. Tan & T. K. Tan
BP Guide to Nature Series published by the Singapore Science Centre, sponsored by British Petroleum
2001 Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, The National University of Singapore & The Singapore Science Centre