Flora index
Fauna index
guide to the mangroves of singapore
Flowering plants
Peter K L Ng and N Sivasothi (editors)
Bakau minyak
Rhizophora apiculata
Family Rhizophoraceae

Southeast Asia to Micronesia. Locally at most sites.
wide shot of whole tree growing by the water
Rhizophora apiculata tree

close up of prop roots
Prop roots

close-up of flower and bud
Flower and buds

close-up of bark
magnified close up of leaf
Underside of leaf blade
showing the dark glands

close up of branch
Branch tip with red stipule

series of seedlings at various stages of growth
Young to old fruits
showing the seedling

group of same-sized saplings
Young saplings
Tree up to 20 m tall.

Leaf blades elliptic, tiny black-spotted below, leaf stalks and stipules often tinged red.

Stalkless flowers cream-coloured, in pairs, on a short, stout, dark grey stalk.

Fruit brown, upside-down pear-shaped, crowned by the persistent sepals.

Seedling viviparous, hypocotyl about 30 cm long, smooth, with somewhat rounded tip.

Gregarious on deep soft mud of estuaries flooded by high tides. Source of timber (bakau). Rare.
Differs from R. mucronata and R. stylosa in possessing short, stout, dark grey inflorescence stalks (vs. long, slender, yellow).

See also ultrafiltration of salt, vivipary and prop roots as adaptations to the mangroves.
What is mangrove?

The Ecosystem


Indirect uses
Potential uses

About Mangroves
in Singapore

Mangroves to visit
From "A Guide to Mangroves of Singapore", Peter K. L. Ng and N. Sivasothi (editors)
Volume 1: The Ecosystem and Plant Diversity and Volume 2: Animal Diversity
Authors: Kelvin K. P. Lim, Dennis H. Murphy, T. Morgany, N. Sivasothi, Peter K. L. Ng,
B. C. Soong, Hugh T. W. Tan, K. S. Tan & T. K. Tan
BP Guide to Nature Series published by the Singapore Science Centre, sponsored by British Petroleum
2001 Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, The National University of Singapore & The Singapore Science Centre