Flora index
Fauna index
guide to the mangroves of singapore
Flowering plants
Peter K L Ng and N Sivasothi (editors)
Heritiera littoralis
Family Sterculiaceae

Indian and West Pacific Oceans. Locally at northern sites.

Low, much branched, evergreen tree, to 15 m tall; bark pinkish gray, smooth becoming flaky when older; leaf blades dark green above and silvery white below, withering dull orange-yellow, oblong to elliptic, leathery; flowers in hanging yellowish tassels; fruits purple-brown, woody, shiny with a stiff keel on one side.
wide shot of trees
Heritiera littoralis

close-up of flowers
Flowering branch
close-up of fruits
Fruiting branch
The hard and strong timber is valued for masts, when it can be got straight enough. It is also used for canoes, firewood, house posts, joists, pressers, telegraph poles, wheel-hubs and boat-ribs. An extract of the seed can be used to treat diarrhoea and dysentery. Rare.
What is mangrove?

The Ecosystem


Indirect uses
Potential uses

About Mangroves
in Singapore

Mangroves to visit
From "A Guide to Mangroves of Singapore", Peter K. L. Ng and N. Sivasothi (editors)
Volume 1: The Ecosystem and Plant Diversity and Volume 2: Animal Diversity
Authors: Kelvin K. P. Lim, Dennis H. Murphy, T. Morgany, N. Sivasothi, Peter K. L. Ng,
B. C. Soong, Hugh T. W. Tan, K. S. Tan & T. K. Tan
BP Guide to Nature Series published by the Singapore Science Centre, sponsored by British Petroleum
2001 Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, The National University of Singapore & The Singapore Science Centre