Flora index
Fauna index
guide to the mangroves of singapore
Flowering plants
Peter K L Ng and N Sivasothi (editors)
Excoecaria agallocha
Family Euphorbiaceae

South India to southern Japan, Southeast Asia, Pacific Islands. Locally in various northern sites. Small, evergreen or deciduous, unisexual tree, rarely up to 20 m tall, exuding poisonous white latex from all broken surfaces.
wide shot of whole tree
Excoecaria agallocha

close-up of branch
Latex dripping
from cut branch

wide-shot of trees growing on mound
Typical cluster of tree
bases with spreading
roots on a mud lobster
flowering branch of male inflorescence
Male inflorescence

close-up of female inflorescence
Female inflorescence

close-up of fruits at various stages of ripeness
Young leaves pink and old leaves withering scarlet, blades elliptic, with upcurled sides.

Male inflorescences hanging, narrow, 5-1 0 cm long; female inflorescences shorter, 1-4-cm long.

Grows on both muddy and stony soil, with its roots spreading. Timber used as firewood, for carpentry purpose and converted to charcoal. Latex in the eye can cause blinding and blisters on bare skin; exploited as a fish-poison. Rare.
What is mangrove?

The Ecosystem


Indirect uses
Potential uses

About Mangroves
in Singapore

Mangroves to visit
From "A Guide to Mangroves of Singapore", Peter K. L. Ng and N. Sivasothi (editors)
Volume 1: The Ecosystem and Plant Diversity and Volume 2: Animal Diversity
Authors: Kelvin K. P. Lim, Dennis H. Murphy, T. Morgany, N. Sivasothi, Peter K. L. Ng,
B. C. Soong, Hugh T. W. Tan, K. S. Tan & T. K. Tan
BP Guide to Nature Series published by the Singapore Science Centre, sponsored by British Petroleum
2001 Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, The National University of Singapore & The Singapore Science Centre