Flora index
Fauna index
guide to the mangroves of singapore
Flowering plants
Peter K L Ng and N Sivasothi (editors)
Bruguiera parviflora
Family Rhizophoraceae

Southeast Asia, to Melanesia and Australia. Locally, only at Pasir Ris Park, Pulau Tekong, Pulau Unum; individuals formerly recorded at Sungei Changi seem to have died out. Grows up to 15 m tall; bark grey, smooth; leaves opposite, blades yellowish green, elliptic; stipules light yellow; flowers 2-5 per leaf angle, sepals yellow-green and remain pointing parallel to the long axis of the fruit fruit; seed germinates in fruit, hypocotyl cylindrical, up to 13 cm long, thinly pencil-like, smooth. Found on the inner side of the mangrove and noted to be a slow grower and has the shortest lifespan. It does not appear to grow well in Singapore with only few individuals and less than the 24 m maximum height found elsewhere.

The bark produces a peculiar odour which frightens away fish. Wood used as mine-timber and germinating seedling as a vegetable. Endangered.
wide shot of branches
Fruiting branches

close-up, including dissected flower
Top (left), side (middle)
and half views of flower

Fruiting branch

See also
Bakau putih Bruguiera cylindrica
Tumu Bruguiera gymnorhiza
Ultrafiltration of salt and vivipary as adaptations to the mangroves.
What is mangrove?

The Ecosystem


Indirect uses
Potential uses

About Mangroves
in Singapore

Mangroves to visit
From "A Guide to Mangroves of Singapore", Peter K. L. Ng and N. Sivasothi (editors)
Volume 1: The Ecosystem and Plant Diversity and Volume 2: Animal Diversity
Authors: Kelvin K. P. Lim, Dennis H. Murphy, T. Morgany, N. Sivasothi, Peter K. L. Ng,
B. C. Soong, Hugh T. W. Tan, K. S. Tan & T. K. Tan
BP Guide to Nature Series published by the Singapore Science Centre, sponsored by British Petroleum
2001 Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, The National University of Singapore & The Singapore Science Centre