Flora index
Fauna index
guide to the mangroves of singapore
Flowering plants
Peter K L Ng and N Sivasothi (editors)
Bruguiera gymnorhiza
Family Rhizophoraceae

East Africa to Southeast Asia, southern Japan, Micronesia, Polynesia. Locally present in most sites. Grows up to 15 m tall.
flowering branches
Branches of
Bruguiera gymnorhiza

close-up of fruit, including dissected fruit
Top (left), side (middle)
and half views of flower

Fruiting branch

Close-up of fruit
close-up of bark

close-up of knee roots
Kneed pneumatophores
With buttresses and kneed roots; bark brown to almost black; leaves opposite, blades elliptic-oblong, leathery; stipules often reddish.

Flower 1 per leaf angle, sepals shiny red in full sun, yellowish in the shade; seed germinates in fruit, seedling hypocotyl up to 20 cm long and 3 cm wide, cigar-shaped, slightly angular with a blunt narrow tip.
One of the largest trees of mangroves in its range (36 m tall) but in Singapore does not grow very tall. Grows best on dry, well aerated soil towards the landward side but in Singapore, also found in mud. Timber used as firewood, charcoal, house-posts and rafters. Leaves and peeled hypocotyl may be eaten after being boiled. Rare.

See also
Bakau putih Bruguiera cylindrica
Lenggadai Bruguiera praviflora
Ultrafiltration of salt, vivipary and knee roots as adaptations to the mangroves.
What is mangrove?

The Ecosystem


Indirect uses
Potential uses

About Mangroves
in Singapore

Mangroves to visit
From "A Guide to Mangroves of Singapore", Peter K. L. Ng and N. Sivasothi (editors)
Volume 1: The Ecosystem and Plant Diversity and Volume 2: Animal Diversity
Authors: Kelvin K. P. Lim, Dennis H. Murphy, T. Morgany, N. Sivasothi, Peter K. L. Ng,
B. C. Soong, Hugh T. W. Tan, K. S. Tan & T. K. Tan
BP Guide to Nature Series published by the Singapore Science Centre, sponsored by British Petroleum
2001 Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, The National University of Singapore & The Singapore Science Centre