Flora index
Fauna index
guide to the mangroves of singapore
Flowering plants
Peter K L Ng and N Sivasothi (editors)
Api-api bulu
Avicennia rumphiana
Family Avicenniaceae

Peninsular Malaysia, Philippines to New Guinea. In most local sites. Tree or shrub, to 20 m tall; bark dark brown to black, warty or smooth; pneumatophores 20-30 cm tall.

Leaf blades satiny dark green above, surface dull, pale yellowish brown and densely short-hairy below; flowers in tight bunches at the ends of a cross-like inflorescence; petals yellow, about 4 mm across.
close-up of base of trunk
Base of trunk
showing buttress roots
and pneumatophores

close-up of bark

close up of flowering branck
Flowering branch
close-up of fruit
Fruit in
bottom (top),
top (middle)
and side
Fruit light green to yellowish brown, densely short-woolly (the Malay bulu, woolly refers to the fruit and leaf undersurface), compressed and ovoid.
Found mainly in sandy or firm silt substrate of middle to higher intertidal positions.

Wood burnt to smoke fish and rubber, and as firewood. Rare. In the older literature, this species was known as A. lanata.

See also
Api-api putih (Avicennia alba)
Api-api jambu (Avicennia marina)
Api-api ludat (Avicennia officinalis)
Salt secretion, cryptovivipary and pneumatophores as adaptations to the mangroves.
What is mangrove?

The Ecosystem


Indirect uses
Potential uses

About Mangroves
in Singapore

Mangroves to visit
From "A Guide to Mangroves of Singapore", Peter K. L. Ng and N. Sivasothi (editors)
Volume 1: The Ecosystem and Plant Diversity and Volume 2: Animal Diversity
Authors: Kelvin K. P. Lim, Dennis H. Murphy, T. Morgany, N. Sivasothi, Peter K. L. Ng,
B. C. Soong, Hugh T. W. Tan, K. S. Tan & T. K. Tan
BP Guide to Nature Series published by the Singapore Science Centre, sponsored by British Petroleum
2001 Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, The National University of Singapore & The Singapore Science Centre