Flora index
Fauna index
guide to the mangroves of singapore
Flowering plants
Peter K L Ng and N Sivasothi (editors)
Api-api ludat
Avicennia officials
Family Avicenniaceae

Western India to Philippines and New Guinea. Locally, in most sites. Tree or shrub, to 20 rn tall; trunk commonly with low aerial roots.

Bark reddish brown and smooth when young and grey-brown when older; pneumatophores about 20-30 cm tall.
close-up of tree base
Base of Avecinnia
aerial roots, buttress roots
and pneumatophores

close-up of open flower

close-up of fruiting branch
Fruiting branch
close-up of bark
Leaf blades bright shiny green above and pale and finely hairy below, egg-shaped to elliptic, tip rounded. Flowers in tight bunches at the ends of a cross-like inflorescence;
petals yellow, about 7 mm across; fruit pale grey-green, velvety, compressed, elongate ellipsoid, with seedlings germinating within. Found in lower intertidal positions on soft recently consolidated mudbanks, banks of river meanders and at river mouths.

Fruits eaten and timber used as firewood. Rare.

See also
Api-api putih (Avicennia alba)
Api-api jambu (Avicennia marina)
Api-api bulu (Avicennia rumphiana)
Salt secretion, cryptovivipary and pneumatophores as adaptations to the mangroves.
What is mangrove?

The Ecosystem


Indirect uses
Potential uses

About Mangroves
in Singapore

Mangroves to visit
From "A Guide to Mangroves of Singapore", Peter K. L. Ng and N. Sivasothi (editors)
Volume 1: The Ecosystem and Plant Diversity and Volume 2: Animal Diversity
Authors: Kelvin K. P. Lim, Dennis H. Murphy, T. Morgany, N. Sivasothi, Peter K. L. Ng,
B. C. Soong, Hugh T. W. Tan, K. S. Tan & T. K. Tan
BP Guide to Nature Series published by the Singapore Science Centre, sponsored by British Petroleum
2001 Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, The National University of Singapore & The Singapore Science Centre