Flora index
Fauna index
guide to the mangroves of singapore
Flowering plants
Peter K L Ng and N Sivasothi (editors)
Api-api jambu
Avicennia marina
Family Avicenniaceae

Eastern Africa to India, Southeast Asia, China, Japan, Australia and Western Pacific islands. Locally, known only from St. John's Island, Pulau Tekong and Pulau Unum; the rarest local Avicennia species. Tree or shrub, 1-3 m tall (to 10 m outside Singapore).

Avicennia marina shrub

close-up of fruiting branch
Fruiting branches

close up of cross-like inflorescence
close-up of bark
Bark chalky white when dry, smooth and flaky; pneumatophores 10-15 cm tall; twigs square in cross-section, unlike the rounded twigs in the other Avicennia species.
Leaf blades shiny yellowish green above and dull pale below; flowers in tight bunches at the ends of a cross-iike inflorescence; petals yellow, about 4 mm across; fruit pale grey-green, compressed, broadly angular egg-shaped. Found on river banks or seawater lagoons. Timber used as firewood. Endangered.

See also
Api-api putih (Avicennia alba)
Api-api ludat (Avicennia officinalis)
Api-api bulu (Avicennia rumphiana)
Salt secretion, cryptovivipary and pneumatophores as adaptations to the mangroves.
What is mangrove?

The Ecosystem


Indirect uses
Potential uses

About Mangroves
in Singapore

Mangroves to visit
From "A Guide to Mangroves of Singapore", Peter K. L. Ng and N. Sivasothi (editors)
Volume 1: The Ecosystem and Plant Diversity and Volume 2: Animal Diversity
Authors: Kelvin K. P. Lim, Dennis H. Murphy, T. Morgany, N. Sivasothi, Peter K. L. Ng,
B. C. Soong, Hugh T. W. Tan, K. S. Tan & T. K. Tan
BP Guide to Nature Series published by the Singapore Science Centre, sponsored by British Petroleum
2001 Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, The National University of Singapore & The Singapore Science Centre