Flora index
Fauna index
guide to the mangroves of singapore
Flowering plants
Peter K L Ng and N Sivasothi (editors)
Api-api putih
Avicennia alba
Family Avicenniaceae

From Western India to Southeast Asia and Western Pacific. In most local sites. Tree or shrub, to 20 m tall; bark dark grey (black when wet), smooth.
wide shot of whole tree
Habit of Avicennia alba

wide shot of pneumatophores emerging from sand
The pneumatophores of
arise from lateral root
growing out of the sand

close-yp of fruiting branch
Fruiting branch

close-up of cross-like inflorescence
close-up of bark

seedlings at various stages of growth
of various ages
Pneumatophores to about 20 cm tall, pencil-like.

Leaf blades shiny dark green above and white waxy below (Latin alba, white, as well as the Malay, putih refer to this feature), usually egg-shaped, elliptic or lance-shaped with a pointed tip but can be very variable even within the same branch;

Flowers in cross-like inflorescences; petals yellow, about 4 mm across. Fruit dull pale green, flattened, elongated ellipsoid, with seedlings germinating within.
Found commonly on newly formed mudbanks on the seaward side, along or near rivers. Burning wood used to smoke fish or rubber. Common.

See also
Api-api jambu (Avicennia marina)
Api-api ludat (Avicennia officinalis)
Api-api bulu (Avicennia rumphiana)
Salt secretion, cryptovivipary and pneumatophores as adaptations to the mangroves.
Avicennia seed moth that is a pest on its seeds.
What is mangrove?

The Ecosystem


Indirect uses
Potential uses

About Mangroves
in Singapore

Mangroves to visit
From "A Guide to Mangroves of Singapore", Peter K. L. Ng and N. Sivasothi (editors)
Volume 1: The Ecosystem and Plant Diversity and Volume 2: Animal Diversity
Authors: Kelvin K. P. Lim, Dennis H. Murphy, T. Morgany, N. Sivasothi, Peter K. L. Ng,
B. C. Soong, Hugh T. W. Tan, K. S. Tan & T. K. Tan
BP Guide to Nature Series published by the Singapore Science Centre, sponsored by British Petroleum
2001 Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, The National University of Singapore & The Singapore Science Centre