Flora index
Fauna index
guide to the mangroves of singapore
Flowering plants
Peter K L Ng and N Sivasothi (editors)
Introduction to Flowering Plants

The flowering plants (Phylum Magnoliophyta) are generally considered the most advanced and dominant on earth with about 250,000 species and composing most of the biomass in terrestrial environments. In Singapore mangroves, they are not only the most common and plentiful of plant species, they are also the largest and most visible organisms.
close-up of flower
A typical flower
exemplified by that of
Muntingia calabura
(Malayan cherry)

They produce seed like the conifers but have their reproductive structures in flowers, and most have their ovules (seed precursors) enclosed within the wall of the ovary and possess double fertilisation.

The flowering plants are divided into two main classes based on the number of cotyledons (seed leaves) in the embryo (rudimentary plant) in the seed; dicotyledons (Class Magnoliopsida) with two and monocotyledons (Class Liliopsida), with one. All flowering plants mentioned in this website belong to the dicotyledons, except for the attap palm.

Index of mangrove flowering plants.
What is mangrove?

The Ecosystem


Indirect uses
Potential uses

About Mangroves
in Singapore

Mangroves to visit
From "A Guide to Mangroves of Singapore", Peter K. L. Ng and N. Sivasothi (editors)
Volume 1: The Ecosystem and Plant Diversity and Volume 2: Animal Diversity
Authors: Kelvin K. P. Lim, Dennis H. Murphy, T. Morgany, N. Sivasothi, Peter K. L. Ng,
B. C. Soong, Hugh T. W. Tan, K. S. Tan & T. K. Tan
BP Guide to Nature Series published by the Singapore Science Centre, sponsored by British Petroleum
2001 Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, The National University of Singapore & The Singapore Science Centre