Flora index
Fauna index
guide to the mangroves of singapore
Peter K L Ng and N Sivasothi (editors)
Piai raya
Acrostichum aureum
Class Filicopsida, Family Pteridaceae

Pantropical. Locally, in various northern areas (including reclaimed sites). Rhizomes and base of the leaf stalks covered with scales up to 4 cm long; leaves pinnate, to about 4 m long, bright red when young; fertile leaflets at the tip are covered with red-brown sporangia, blades of sterile leaflets have a broadly rounded end terminated with a short tip.

On the landward side of mangrove swamps or non-mangrove seaside areas including reclaimed land; not as tolerant of flooding as Acrostichum speciosum.

Dried parchment-like fronds were used as roof thatching which are durable and less of a fire hazard. Pounded rhizomes are used to treat wounds and boils. Common.

About mangrove ferns in general.
close-up of leaf tips
Leaflet tips upperside of
A. aureum (left) and
A. speciosium

close-up of leaf tips
Leaflet tips underside of
A. aureum (left) and
A. speciosium

wide shot of whole plant
Habitat of Acrostichum
Sporangia are the brown areas under the leaflets (left) and young leaves are reddish brown
What is mangrove?

The Ecosystem


Indirect uses
Potential uses

About Mangroves
in Singapore

Mangroves to visit
From "A Guide to Mangroves of Singapore", Peter K. L. Ng and N. Sivasothi (editors)
Volume 1: The Ecosystem and Plant Diversity and Volume 2: Animal Diversity
Authors: Kelvin K. P. Lim, Dennis H. Murphy, T. Morgany, N. Sivasothi, Peter K. L. Ng,
B. C. Soong, Hugh T. W. Tan, K. S. Tan & T. K. Tan
BP Guide to Nature Series published by the Singapore Science Centre, sponsored by British Petroleum
2001 Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, The National University of Singapore & The Singapore Science Centre