Flora index
Fauna index
guide to the mangroves of singapore
Plants of the mangroves
Peter K L Ng and N Sivasothi (editors)
  The plants differ from the other kingdoms in that most of them have multicellular green tissues (with cells possessing a distinct nucleus and containing the pigments chlorophylls a and b, and carotenoids) which can photosynthesise to produce starch as their primary food reserve from carbon dioxide, light and water. The cells also each possess a cell wall rich in cellulose.

The plants, in turn, are divided into groups called phyla

  • Bryophyta (mosses, liverworts and hornworts)
  • Psilophyta (whisk ferns)
  • Lycopodophyta (club and spike mosses)
  • Sphenophyta (horsetails)
  • Filicinophyta (ferns)
  • Cycadophyta (cycads)
  • Ginkgophyta (maidenhair trees)
  • Coniferophyta (conifers)
  • Gnetophyta (gnetoids) and
  • Magnoliophyta (flowering plants or angiosperms)
close-up of flower
Flower of
Teruntum merah
Lumnitzera littorea
What is mangrove?

The Ecosystem


Indirect uses
Potential uses

About Mangroves
in Singapore

Mangroves to visit
From "A Guide to Mangroves of Singapore", Peter K. L. Ng and N. Sivasothi (editors)
Volume 1: The Ecosystem and Plant Diversity and Volume 2: Animal Diversity
Authors: Kelvin K. P. Lim, Dennis H. Murphy, T. Morgany, N. Sivasothi, Peter K. L. Ng,
B. C. Soong, Hugh T. W. Tan, K. S. Tan & T. K. Tan
BP Guide to Nature Series published by the Singapore Science Centre, sponsored by British Petroleum
2001 Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, The National University of Singapore & The Singapore Science Centre