the mangrove forest proper
A large number of obligate marine fungi thrive on mangrove wood, pneumatophores
and submerged mangrove leaf litter. While the majority belong to the Ascomycotina,
some belong to the Basidiomycotina and the Oomycotina. The Ascomycotina
and Basidiomycotina are lignolytic, while the Oomycotina are 'sugar fungi'
and are among the first to colonise freshly fallen leaves with their residual
fruit body in
|A few of these
marine fungi form fruiting bodies large enough to be seen with a good
hand-lens, such as Halocyphina villosa, Hypoxylon oceanicum, Verruculina
enalia, Nia vibrissa, Antennospora quadricornuta, Lulworthia spp.
and also Aigialus parvus.
Unfortunately, most marine fungi are microscopic, and are best
observed after incubating some mangrove twigs in a laboratory. The
fruiting bodies and their spores can then be observed under the microscope.
is a marine Basidiomycotina common on mangrove substrata. Tends to
form large numbers of small, whitish and more or less globose fruiting
bodies that can be seen with the naked eye or with a hand-lens. A
large number of tiny basidiospores can be seen under the microscope
when the fruiting body is squashed.
enalia, a marine Ascomycotina consists of black and
carbonaceous fruiting bodies on branches and twigs at both low and
high water marks. It is one of the most dominant marine fungi to colonise
woody mangrove substrata. When the fruiting bodies are squashed, a
large number of elongated asci (spore sacs) each containing 8 brown
ascospores can be observed.
sp. is a marine Ascomycotina usually associated with leafy
mangrove substrata. Other species have been observed on submerged
and marine driftwood. The black membraneous fruiting bodies are oval
or lens-shaped, and can be seen dotting an infected grass or leaf
blade. Ascospores are filamentous and packed 8 to an ascus.
About fungi above the tide line.