Flora index
Fauna index
guide to the mangroves of singapore
Peter K L Ng and N Sivasothi (editors)
  Fungi belong to the Kingdom Eumycota, and are usually found on living mangrove plants or on dead decaying vegetation, as saprophytes, parasites or symbionts. Parasitic species cause such diseases as 'die-back' of mangroves, but the majority are saprophytic on wood debris and leaf litter, contributing as decomposers to the mangrove ecosystem's food chain. Information about fungal biology is available in the Singapore Science Centre's "Guide to Tropical Fungi".

Above the tide line
A number of large, wood-digesting fungi (lignicolous macrofungi) belonging the Basidiomycotina may be found on dead tree trunks and fallen branches. What we see are their reproductive/fruiting bodies, which are fairly resistant to dry weather, while their thread-like thallus (mycelium) grows and ramifies through the wood tissues.

Lentinus spp. have leathery and 'typical' mushroom fruiting bodies each consisting of a stalk (stipe) and a cap (pileus) and tend to grow gregariously.

close-up of fruiting bodies
Fungus on underside
of a boardwalk

close up of fruiting bodies
Lentinus sp.
Bracket fungi (Ganoderma spp., Family Polyporaceae) are the hard and leathery brown fruiting bodies which grow out from tree trunks. The lower surface of the fruiting body bears many pores through which the spores are discharged and dispersed by wind.
close-up of fruiting bodies
Bracket fungi o
the trunk of
Excoecaria agallocha
close-up of fruiting bodies
Polyporous fungi
Polyporous fungi, belonging to the same family are similar but the leathery fruiting body may be resupinate and thin.

The Split-gill fungus (Schizophyllum commune) has a fruiting body which is usually dissected into segments, below which are the gills bearing the spores. This atypically shaped 'mushroom' is fairly resistant to dry weather. They are usually found growing on dead coconut tree trunks, or boardwalks. The Yellow jelly fungus (Dacryopinax spathularia) is also found on boardwalks.
Split-gill fungus

About fungi in the mangrove forest proper.
What is mangrove?

The Ecosystem


Indirect uses
Potential uses

About Mangroves
in Singapore

Mangroves to visit
From "A Guide to Mangroves of Singapore", Peter K. L. Ng and N. Sivasothi (editors)
Volume 1: The Ecosystem and Plant Diversity and Volume 2: Animal Diversity
Authors: Kelvin K. P. Lim, Dennis H. Murphy, T. Morgany, N. Sivasothi, Peter K. L. Ng,
B. C. Soong, Hugh T. W. Tan, K. S. Tan & T. K. Tan
BP Guide to Nature Series published by the Singapore Science Centre, sponsored by British Petroleum
2001 Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, The National University of Singapore & The Singapore Science Centre