Flora index
Fauna index
guide to the mangroves of singapore
Mangrove conservation in Singapore
Peter K L Ng and N Sivasothi (editors)
Endangered Epiphytes

Epiphytes, which are plants which grow on other plants, form a major component of the life-forms found in an undisturbed mangrove forest.
in Singapore

Coastal Cleanup
Oil spills
Moribund trees
Endangered Epiphytes
In Singapore mangroves, the absence of epiphytes is most noticeable as a result of forest clearance.

Except for the common epiphytic ferns such as the Bird's nest fern (Asplenium nidus), Dragon's scales (Pyrossia piloselloides) and a few climbers such as species of Dischidia, Finlaysoniana, Hoya and Derris, most epiphytic or climbing species are now extinct.
view of whole plant close-up of flowering branch
Cymbidium finlaysonia
now a locally endangered epiphyte.
Photo from Pulau Lingga, Indonesia

A major group of epiphytes commonly found in pristine mangroves are the orchids. 220 species of orchids were recorded from Singapore, but only 29 species are still extant, a loss of 86.8%, and this includes the 28 extinct species which are epiphytes or climbers associated with mangrove.
What is mangrove?

The Ecosystem


Indirect uses
Potential uses

About Mangroves
in Singapore

Mangroves to visit
From "A Guide to Mangroves of Singapore", Peter K. L. Ng and N. Sivasothi (editors)
Volume 1: The Ecosystem and Plant Diversity and Volume 2: Animal Diversity
Authors: Kelvin K. P. Lim, Dennis H. Murphy, T. Morgany, N. Sivasothi, Peter K. L. Ng,
B. C. Soong, Hugh T. W. Tan, K. S. Tan & T. K. Tan
BP Guide to Nature Series published by the Singapore Science Centre, sponsored by British Petroleum
2001 Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, The National University of Singapore & The Singapore Science Centre