Flora index
Fauna index
guide to the mangroves of singapore
Mangrove conservation in Singapore
Peter K L Ng and N Sivasothi (editors)
The phenomenon of moribund trees

A phenomenon in mangroves that has been increasingly evident in the past decade is the appearance of small stands of dead or dying (moribund) trees.
in Singapore

Coastal Cleanup
Oil spills
Moribund trees
Endangered Epiphytes
view of dead trees
Tree deaths occur
in patches
The trunks have been attacked by wood-boring insects, and are usually covered with fungus as well.

The canopy is open to the sun and algae covers the exposed ground.
open canopy due to tree death
The canopy is opened
up to sunlight
As the dying roots degenerate, soil is released and the seaward patches become severely eroded. You will notice this from the boardwalk at Sungei Buloh.

Although a certain amount of tree death is natural, this phenomenon has become widespread enough to require intervention, possibly by replanting propagules in the afflicted areas.

The possibilities suggested so far include lightning strike, but a satisfactory explanation is as yet unavailable.
close-up of termite and fungal attack on tree trunk
Termite and fungal
What is mangrove?

The Ecosystem


Indirect uses
Potential uses

About Mangroves
in Singapore

Mangroves to visit
From "A Guide to Mangroves of Singapore", Peter K. L. Ng and N. Sivasothi (editors)
Volume 1: The Ecosystem and Plant Diversity and Volume 2: Animal Diversity
Authors: Kelvin K. P. Lim, Dennis H. Murphy, T. Morgany, N. Sivasothi, Peter K. L. Ng,
B. C. Soong, Hugh T. W. Tan, K. S. Tan & T. K. Tan
BP Guide to Nature Series published by the Singapore Science Centre, sponsored by British Petroleum
2001 Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, The National University of Singapore & The Singapore Science Centre