Flora index
Fauna index
guide to the mangroves of singapore
Mangrove conservation in Singapore
Peter K L Ng and N Sivasothi (editors)
Oil spills

In October 1997, the oil tanker Evoikos, and the very large crude carrier Orapin Global, collided in the Singapore Straits. In what was the worst oil spill in Singapore's history, 25,000 tonnes of oil from the Evoikos was spewed into the sea. Luckily, the Orapin Global was empty.
in Singapore

Coastal Cleanup
Oil spills
Moribund trees
Endangered Epiphytes
This was a grim reminder of the heavy shipping traffic that ploughs through Singapore waters. Despite a carefully managed traffic system, mistakes happen, as it did here, despite the 8 km visibility that day, which is considered normal.

The ecological impact cannot be fully known despite the cleanup effort which was aided by the accumulation of oil on mangrove tree-trunks in nearby islands, particularly Pulau Semakau.

The damaged Evoikos anchored near Raffles Lighthouse served as a conspicuous warning, months later, of the need to be vigilant.
view of the damaged oil tanker
The damaged oil tanker Evoikos, anchored near
Raffles Lighthouse pending investigations

close-up of damage on roots
Close-up of oil stains
on Rhizophora apiculata (above)
and Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea (below)

close-up of damage on beach vegetation
What is mangrove?

The Ecosystem


Indirect uses
Potential uses

About Mangroves
in Singapore

Mangroves to visit
From "A Guide to Mangroves of Singapore", Peter K. L. Ng and N. Sivasothi (editors)
Volume 1: The Ecosystem and Plant Diversity and Volume 2: Animal Diversity
Authors: Kelvin K. P. Lim, Dennis H. Murphy, T. Morgany, N. Sivasothi, Peter K. L. Ng,
B. C. Soong, Hugh T. W. Tan, K. S. Tan & T. K. Tan
BP Guide to Nature Series published by the Singapore Science Centre, sponsored by British Petroleum
2001 Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, The National University of Singapore & The Singapore Science Centre