Flora index
Fauna index
guide to the mangroves of singapore
Economic value
Peter K L Ng and N Sivasothi (editors)
  Indirect Uses

Non-consumptive use value includes the services provided by the mangrove community without it being destroyed or removed even in part. These include services for many industries and activities.

Fisheries: Mangroves supply food to marine communities via a detritus food chain starting from fallen mangrove leaves. They also provide a habitat for some commercially exploited marine organisms (e.g. prawns, crabs and fish) at critical phases of their life cycle by functioning as a feeding ground for juveniles (nurseries). In fact, studies have shovwn that when mangroves are lost, fishermen suffer substantially decreased catches of prawns and many fish species.
fisherman in his boat
A fisherman in the Western
Johor Straits, off the Sarimbun
mangroves in the west of Singapore.
Pulau Sarimbun is in the background.

Natural sewage-treatment plant: Under favourable conditions and reasonable load, the community may have this function. A thorough understanding of nutrient cycling in this ecosystem is necessary. This is especially because so many food products are harvested from mangroves. Indiscriminate dumping of sewage can easily lead to food poisoning and epidemics!

Coastal protection: Although it is generally concluded that mangroves will develop only in areas which are predisposed to sedimentation and thus cannot be credited with land-building, the community will stabilize and prevent shifting of the coastline. Mangroves can also buffer against the damage wrought by winds and water during storms, hurricanes and typhoons.

Ecotourism and education: Mangrove wildlife is a tourist attraction. This aspect is exploited in Pulau Langkawi, Kuala Selangor (Malaysia) and the Sungei Buloh Nature Park which has migratory birds as an added attraction. More schools in Singapore are beginning to use the park to conduct short research projects.
students in a mangrove
A teacher and her students
investigating the possibility
of a project in the mangroves
What is mangrove?

The Ecosystem


Indirect uses
Potential uses

About Mangroves
in Singapore

Mangroves to visit
From "A Guide to Mangroves of Singapore", Peter K. L. Ng and N. Sivasothi (editors)
Volume 1: The Ecosystem and Plant Diversity and Volume 2: Animal Diversity
Authors: Kelvin K. P. Lim, Dennis H. Murphy, T. Morgany, N. Sivasothi, Peter K. L. Ng,
B. C. Soong, Hugh T. W. Tan, K. S. Tan & T. K. Tan
BP Guide to Nature Series published by the Singapore Science Centre, sponsored by British Petroleum
2001 Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, The National University of Singapore & The Singapore Science Centre