Flora index
Fauna index
guide to the mangroves of singapore
The Ecosystem
Peter K L Ng and N Sivasothi (editors)

Mangrove forests grow between MTL and HHWST
Diagrammatic profile of a mangrove in Sungei Pandan mangroves based on Berry (1963). Height within tidal range and other factors result in horizontal and vertical zonation of flora and fauna. The horizontal axis is compressed.
For more about tides and their effects on the mangroves.

diagram of profile of mangrove forest

<<Back to Tides and the Mangrove Ecosystem

What is mangrove?

The Ecosystem


Indirect uses
Potential uses

About Mangroves
in Singapore

Mangroves to visit
From "A Guide to Mangroves of Singapore", Peter K. L. Ng and N. Sivasothi (editors)
Volume 1: The Ecosystem and Plant Diversity and Volume 2: Animal Diversity
Authors: Kelvin K. P. Lim, Dennis H. Murphy, T. Morgany, N. Sivasothi, Peter K. L. Ng,
B. C. Soong, Hugh T. W. Tan, K. S. Tan & T. K. Tan
BP Guide to Nature Series published by the Singapore Science Centre, sponsored by British Petroleum
2001 Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, The National University of Singapore & The Singapore Science Centre