CONTENTS
Flora index
Fauna index
guide to the mangroves of singapore
The Ecosystem: Abiotic components
Peter K L Ng and N Sivasothi (editors)
  pH

Dissolved calcium of shells and offshore coral make brackish waters alkaline. Mangrove soils, however, are neutral to slightly acidic due to the sulphur-reducing bacteria, and the presence of acidic clays.

In Malaysia, there are mangroves with very acidic brackish waters, probably due to the aeration of soil sulphates, forming sulphuric acid. This phenomenon has not been observed in Singapore.
Mangrove Ecosystem
Abiotic components
Soil
pH
Oxygen
Nutrients
Winds and currents
Light, temperature, humidity
Tides
Salinity

Biotic components
Vegetation
Zonation
What is mangrove?
Introduction

The Ecosystem

Abiotic
Biotic

Value
Intro
Products
Indirect uses
Potential uses

About Mangroves
in Singapore

History
Mangroves to visit
Conservation
 
From "A Guide to Mangroves of Singapore", Peter K. L. Ng and N. Sivasothi (editors)
Volume 1: The Ecosystem and Plant Diversity and Volume 2: Animal Diversity
Authors: Kelvin K. P. Lim, Dennis H. Murphy, T. Morgany, N. Sivasothi, Peter K. L. Ng,
B. C. Soong, Hugh T. W. Tan, K. S. Tan & T. K. Tan
BP Guide to Nature Series published by the Singapore Science Centre, sponsored by British Petroleum
2001 Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, The National University of Singapore & The Singapore Science Centre