Flora index
Fauna index
guide to the mangroves of singapore
Interesting mangrove locations
Peter K L Ng and N Sivasothi (editors)
Drainage system of
the Mandai Besar/Kechil mangroves, 1989

Site codes (MK and MB) refer to survey sites used by D. H. Murphy et. al. The villages Kampung Mandai Kecil and Kampung Fatimah no longer exist; the latter was part of Malaysian land administered by the Malaysia Railway Administration.

It was acquired in 1989 by the Singapore government for an extension to the Woodlands immigration complex.

Clearing of
a Lumnitzera littorea
forest at Sungei Mandai
Besar mangroves, circa 1973


What is mangrove?

The Ecosystem


Indirect uses
Potential uses

About Mangroves
in Singapore

Mangroves to visit
From "A Guide to Mangroves of Singapore", Peter K. L. Ng and N. Sivasothi (editors)
Volume 1: The Ecosystem and Plant Diversity and Volume 2: Animal Diversity
Authors: Kelvin K. P. Lim, Dennis H. Murphy, T. Morgany, N. Sivasothi, Peter K. L. Ng,
B. C. Soong, Hugh T. W. Tan, K. S. Tan & T. K. Tan
BP Guide to Nature Series published by the Singapore Science Centre, sponsored by British Petroleum
2001 Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, The National University of Singapore & The Singapore Science Centre